Skip to content
References

References

Grenade® Sports

.50 Calibre®

Niacin contributes to normal energy yielding metabolism. Niacin and Folic Acid Contributes to the reduction in tiredness and fatigue.

Creatine increases physical performance in successive bursts of short-term, high intensity exercise when a daily intake of 3g of Creatine is taken.

BCAA 8:1:1

Drummond MJ, Rasmussen BB. Leucine enriched nutrients and the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling and human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Met ab Care. 2008 May;11(3):222-6. doi: 10.1097/ MCO.0b013e3282fa17fb.

Crozier, S. J., Kimball, S.R., Emmert, S. W., Anthony, J. C., & Jefferson, L.S. (2005) Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. 135: 376-382.

Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, van Loon LJ. (2005) Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 288(4): E645-653.

La Bounty, P., et al., The effects of oral BCAAs and leucine supplementation combined with an acute lower-body resistance exercise on mTOR and 4E-BP1 activation in humans: preliminary findings. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(Suppl 1):P21, 2008.

Tipton, K. D., et al. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 1):E628-34.

Doi M, et al (2005). Isoleucine, a blood glucose-lowering amino acid, increases glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle in the absence of increases in AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Journal of Nutrition. Sep;135(9):2103-8.

Taylor WM, Halperin ML. Effect of valine on the control of fatty acid synthesis in white adipose tissue of the rat. Can J Biochem. 1975 Oct;53(10):1054-60.

Black Ops®

Graham TE. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med. 2001;31(11):785-807.

Galgani JE, Ravussin E. Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. Source. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;92(5):1089-93.

Chaiyata P, Puttadechakum S, Komindr S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):854-60.

Fraga CG, Litterio MC, Prince PD, Calabró V, Piotrkowski B, Galleano M.

Cocoa flavanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure. J ClinBiochem Nutr. 2011 Jan;48(1):63-7. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Wang W, Basinger A, Neese RA, Christiansen M, Hellerstein MK.Effects of nicotinic acid on fatty acid kinetics, fuel selection, and pathways of glucose

production in women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jul;279(1):E50-9.Henning BF, Tepel M, Riezler R, Gillessen A, Doberauer C. Vitamin

supplementation during weight reduction--favourable effect on homocysteine metabolism. Res Exp Med (Berl). 1998 Jul;198(1):37-42.

Penry JT, Manore MM. Choline: an important micronutrient for maximal endurance-exercise performance? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Apr;18(2):191-203.

Power M, Pratley R. Alternative and complementary treatments for metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep. 2011 Jun;11(3):173-8.

Graham TE. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med. 2001;31(11):785-807.

Galgani JE, Ravussin E. Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. Source. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;92(5):1089-93.

Chaiyata P, Puttadechakum S, Komindr S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):854-60.

Fraga CG, Litterio MC, Prince PD, Calabró V, Piotrkowski B, Galleano M. Cocoa fl avanols: effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011 Jan;48(1):63-7. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Wang W, Basinger A, Neese RA, Christiansen M, Hellerstein MK.Effects of nicotinic acid on fatty acid kinetics, fuel selection, and pathways of glucose production in women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jul;279(1):E50-9.

Henning BF, Tepel M, Riezler R, Gillessen A, Doberauer C. Vitamin supplementation during weight reduction--favourable effect on homocysteine metabolism. Res Exp Med (Berl). 1998 Jul;198(1):37-42.

Penry JT, Manore MM. Choline: an important micronutrient for maximal endurance-exercise performance? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Apr;18(2):191-203.

Power M, Pratley R. Alternative and complementary treatments for metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep. 2011 Jun;11(3):173-8.

Carb Killa®

Tipton KD, Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2073-81.

Westman EC, et al. SD (1 August 2007). "Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2): 276–84. PMID 17684196.

Merchant, Anwar T.; et al. (2009). "Carbohydrate Intake and Overweight and Obesity among Healthy Adults". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109 (7): 1165–72.  doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.04.002. PMC 3093919. PMID 19559132.

Commission of the European Communities. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food concerning sweeteners. Sixteenth Series. Report EUR 10210 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1985.

European Economic Community Council (EEC). Directive on food labeling. Official Journal of the European Communities. No. L 276/40 (Oct. 6, 1990).

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, IPCS Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: Maltitol, WHO Food Additives Series: 32, 1993, pp. 101-104.

Life Sciences Research Office. Evaluation of the net energy value of maltitol. April 1999. (unpublished)

Office of the Federal Register, General Services Administration, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Section 101.80, Health Claims: dietary sugar alcohols and dental caries. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Modderman JP. Safety Assessment of Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysates. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 18:80-104, 1993.

Petition to Affirm Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Status of Maltitol As A Food Ingredient, by Towa Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., filed December 23,1986 with the United States Food and Drug Administration.

Creatine

Dempsey RL, Mazzone MF, Meurer LN Does oral creatine supplementation improve strength? A meta-analysis . J Fam Pract. (2002)

Santos, R. V. et al. (2004) The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race. Life Sciences, Volume 75(16), pages 1917-1924.

Ziegenfuss TN, Rogers M, Lowery L, Mullins N, Mendel R, Antonio J, Lemon P. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition. 2002 May; 18(5): 397-402.

Candow DG1, et al Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults . Res Sports Med. (2014)

Defend BCAA

Drummond MJ, Rasmussen BB. Leucineenriched n trients and the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling and human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 May;11(3):222-6. doi: 10.1097/ MCO.0b013e3282fa17fb.

Schwedhelm E, Maas R, Freese R, Jung D, Lukacs Z, Jambrecina A, Spickler W, Schulze F, Böger RH. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;65(1):51-9. Epub 2007 Jul 27.

Pérez-Guisado J, Jakeman PM. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215 -22.

Osowska S, Duchemann T, Walrand S, Paillard A, Boirie Y, Cynober L, Moinard C. Citrulline modulates muscle protein metabolism in old malnourished rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;291(3):E582-6. Epub 2006 Apr 11.

Hydra 6®

Bohé J, Low A, Wolfe RR, Rennie M J. Human muscle protein synthesis is modulated by extracellular, not intramuscular amino acid availability: a dose-response study. J Physiol. 2003 Oct 1;552( Pt 1): 315-24. Epub 2003 Aug 8.

Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson MP, Maubois JL, Beaufrère B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997 Dec 23;94(26) :14930-5.

Reidy PT, Walker DK , Dickinson JM, Gundermann DM, Drummond M J, Timmerman KL, Fry CS, Borack MS,Cope MB, Mukh erjea R , Jennings K, Volpi E, Rasmuss en BB. Protein blend ingestion following resistance exercise promotes human muscle protein synthesis. J Nutr. 2013 Apr ;143 (4) : 410 -6. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.168021. Epub 2013 Jan 23. 

Glutamine

MacLennan PA, Brown RA, Rennie MJ A positive relationship between protein synthetic rate and intracellular glutamine concentration in perfused rat skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett. (1987

Zhou X, Thompson JR Regulation of protein turnover by glutamine in heat-shocked skeletal myotubes . Biochim Biophys Acta. (1997)

Walsh, N. P., Blannin, A. K., Robson, P. J., & Gleeson, D. M. (1998). Glutamine, Exercise and Immune Function. Sports Medicine, 26(3), 177-191.

1.Wischmeyer PE. Clinical applications of L-glutamine: Past, present, and future. Nutr Clin Prac. 2003;18(5):377-385.

Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., & Newsholme, E. A. (1996). Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 73(5), 488-490.

Sevastiadou S, et al The impact of oral glutamine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis/septicemia in premature neonates. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. (2011).

Potsic B, et al Glutamine supplementation and deprivation: effect on artificially reared rat small intestinal morphology . Pediatr Res. (2002)

 Muscle Machine® Lean

EFSA Approved Claims:

Protein contributes to growth and maintenance of muscle mass

Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal testosterone levels in the blood

Zinc contributes to normal protein synthesis

 Muscle Machine® Mass

- Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T. et al. Glycemic response and health – a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(Suppl.):258S–268S. 

- Lina BAR, Jonker D, Kozianowski G. Isomaltulose (Palatinose): a review of biological and toxicological studies. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1383–1389.

For full report: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943747/

Thermo Detonator® Stim Free 

Acetyl L-Carnitine

Muller, D. M., et al. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults. Metabolism 51(11):1389-91, 2002. 

Stephens, F. B., et al. New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. The Journal of Physiology 581: 431-444, 2007.

Phytophare® Green Tea Extract Berube-Parent. S., et al. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr 94: 432-436, 2005.

Nagao, T., et al. Tea catechins suppress accumulation of body fat in humans. J Oleo Sci 50: 717-728, 2001.

Shixian, Q., yet al. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. J Med Food. 2006 Winter;9(4):451-8.

CapsiAtra® CH-19 Sweet (3% Dihydrocapsiate)

Yazawa S, Suetome N, Okamoto K, Namiki T. Content of capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid-like substances in fruit of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) hybrids made with ‘‘CH-19 Sweet’’ as a parent. J Jpn Soc Hort Sci 1989;58:601–7.

Kawabata F, Inoue N, Yazawa S, Kawada T, Inoue K, Fushiki T. Effects of CH-19 sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, in decreasing the body weight and suppressing body fat accumulation by sympathetic nerve activation in humans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006;70: 2824–35.

GRENADE® ACTIVE

Carb Killa® Shake

Tipton KD, Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2073-81.

Westman EC, et al. SD (1 August 2007). "Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2): 276–84. PMID 17684196.

Merchant, Anwar T.; et al. (2009). "Carbohydrate Intake and Overweight and Obesity among Healthy Adults". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109 (7): 1165–72. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.04.002. PMC 3093919. PMID 19559132.

Commission of the European Communities. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food concerning sweeteners. Sixteenth Series. Report EUR 10210 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1985.

European Economic Community Council (EEC). Directive on food labeling. Official Journal of the European Communities. No. L 276/40 (Oct. 6, 1990).

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, IPCS Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: Maltitol, WHO Food Additives Series: 32, 1993, pp. 101-104.

Life Sciences Research Office. Evaluation of the net energy value of maltitol. April 1999. (unpublished)

Office of the Federal Register, General Services Administration, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Section 101.80, Health Claims: dietary sugar alcohols and dental caries. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Modderman JP. Safety Assessment of Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysates. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 18:80-104, 1993.

Petition to Affirm Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Status of Maltitol As A Food Ingredient, by Towa Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., filed December 23,1986 with the United States Food and Drug Administration.

Carb Killa®

Tipton KD, Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2073-81.

Westman EC, et al. SD (1 August 2007). "Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2): 276–84. PMID 17684196.

Merchant, Anwar T.; et al. (2009). "Carbohydrate Intake and Overweight and Obesity among Healthy Adults". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109 (7): 1165–72.  doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.04.002. PMC 3093919. PMID 19559132.

Commission of the European Communities. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food concerning sweeteners. Sixteenth Series. Report EUR 10210 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1985.

European Economic Community Council (EEC). Directive on food labeling. Official Journal of the European Communities. No. L 276/40 (Oct. 6, 1990).

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, IPCS Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: Maltitol, WHO Food Additives Series: 32, 1993, pp. 101-104.

Life Sciences Research Office. Evaluation of the net energy value of maltitol. April 1999. (unpublished)

Office of the Federal Register, General Services Administration, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Section 101.80, Health Claims: dietary sugar alcohols and dental caries. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Modderman JP. Safety Assessment of Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysates. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 18:80-104, 1993.

Petition to Affirm Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Status of Maltitol As A Food Ingredient, by Towa Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., filed December 23,1986 with the United States Food and Drug Administration.

BE MORE GRENADE®

BE MORE GRENADE®

Enjoying your Grenade® Goods? Show us some love on your Insta for the chance to be featured! Don’t forget to use #TeamGrenade to be spotted!